Software Developed by a developer ought to be correct, dependable and maintainable. It must satisfy the consumer’s requirements. Software development is a dynamic process because it ought to be altered or redesigned to integrate the changes required from the users. To cope up with this dynamic behavior of the program development cycle, different approaches of programming are developed. These programming approaches are known as programming paradigms. A programming paradigm reflects the structure of a program.

In earlier days, the applications have been written in binary language loaded to the memory through console switches and numeric keypad. These programs are extremely tricky to debug. Subsequently, the assembly language was devised to enable the programmer to write apps using mnemonics. It was also very difficult to debug large and complex program written in assembly language. With the shift in users demands, the dimensions and sophistication of these programs continue to grow and so assembly speech became unsuitable for written programs.

Then, High-level languages like FORTRAN, BASIC, etc were created. These languages are only like English but follow unstructured programming paradigm were written one after another in one unit. The constraints of these programming are:

  1. For large and Intricate programs, it is Very difficult to find an error.
  2. Suitable for small and Easy programs.
  3. Code reusability is not allowed.

To overcome The restriction of unstructured programming paradigm, additional programming paradigm such as procedural programming paradigm, object-oriented paradigm, etc. were developed.

Summary of process-oriented programming:

High-level programming languages such as C, Pascal, etc. were developed to enable the developer to write programs in a structured way. This structured programming is a powerful approach to compose the complex program. Within this approach, a huge program is broken into a set of smaller components each of which plays a well-defined undertaking. These smaller units are called functions/ sub-apps/processes.

Each Function has a set of local information as well as a set of instructions to carry out its designated task. Additionally, it has a clearly-defined interface with which it can communicate with another purpose of the program. This approach follows the top-down method for app development. The entire program is divided into a pair of sub-programs and so on until every smaller sub-programs gets an invisible unit. These figures show the approach. The programs developed utilizing procedural approach is made up of master module called main-module which controls the execution of the other sub-programs.


  • The emphasis is on the functionality Of tasks instead of the information used by this program.
  • It allows data to move freely from 1 sub-program to another with no security Information to be used by many sub-programs is required to be declared as global. Any sub-program can alter the value of international data.
  • Modules and sub-programs are the Physical building blocks.
  • related.
  • It does not introduce real-world models very well.
  • Employs a top-notch approach in program design.
  • Any change in the arrangement of data Requires the following changes in all the sub-programs accessing that data.

To conquer Paradigm called object-oriented Programming has been developed that allows us to represent real-world Models more accurately. Object-oriented programming allows us to design the Software in a manner closest how we think about and interact with the real world. As the thing is a little, self-contained unit with a well-defined border. It consists of country and behavior. The condition indicates among Possible conditions that an object can exist in and is represented with its Properties/ characteristics or information. The behavior indicates how an object behaves or Behaves and can be symbolized by methods/ operations that it may perform. In OOP, Properties or attributes are represented by variables and procedure or operations Are represented by acts. In this approach, the developers create not only Information but also the functions that may be performed on it under one unit Called item.

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